Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Collaboration and License Agreements

Collaboration and License Agreements
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2017
Organization Consolidation And Presentation Of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Collaboration and License Agreements



Collaboration and License Agreements

In December 2016, the Company entered into the Collaboration Agreement with Novartis, pursuant to which the Company granted Novartis an exclusive option to collaborate with the Company to develop products containing emricasan.  Pursuant to the Collaboration Agreement, the Company received a non-refundable upfront payment of $50.0 million from Novartis.

In May 2017, Novartis exercised its option under the Collaboration Agreement. In July 2017, the Company received a $7.0 million option exercise payment, at which time the license under the Collaboration Agreement became effective (the License Effective Date). Under the Collaboration Agreement, the Company will be eligible to receive up to an aggregate of $650.0 million in milestone payments over the term of the Collaboration Agreement, contingent on the achievement of certain development, regulatory and commercial milestones, as well as royalties or profit and loss sharing on future product sales in the United States, if any.

Pursuant to the Collaboration Agreement, the Company is responsible for completing its four ongoing Phase 2b trials. Novartis will generally pay 50% of the Company’s Phase 2b emricasan development costs pursuant to an agreed upon budget. Novartis will assume full responsibility for emricasan’s Phase 3 development and all combination product development.

Unless terminated earlier, the Collaboration Agreement will remain in effect on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis until Novartis’ royalty obligations expire. Novartis has certain termination rights in the event of a mandated clinical trial hold for any product containing emricasan as its sole active ingredient. Additionally, Novartis has the right to terminate the Collaboration Agreement without cause upon 180 days prior written notice to the Company.  In such event, the license granted to Novartis will be terminated and revert to the Company. In the event Novartis terminates the Collaboration Agreement due to the Company’s uncured material breach or insolvency, the license granted to Novartis pursuant to the Collaboration Agreement will become irrevocable, and Novartis will be required to continue to make all milestone and royalty payments otherwise due to the Company under the Collaboration Agreement, provided that if the Company materially breaches the Collaboration Agreement such that the rights licensed to Novartis or the commercial prospects of the emricasan products are seriously impaired, the milestone and royalty payments will be reduced by 50%.

Under the relevant accounting literature, the Collaboration Agreement meets the definition of a collaborative arrangement and a multiple-element arrangement. The Company concluded that there were two significant deliverables under the Collaboration Agreement – the option to obtain the license and the research and development services – but that the license does not have stand-alone value as Novartis cannot obtain value from the license without the research and development services, which the Company is uniquely able to perform. As such, the Company expects to recognize as collaboration revenue a portion of the upfront payment received of $50.0 million, the option exercise fee of $7.0 million, and the imputed income from the Investment Agreement as described below on a straight-line basis between the inception of the agreement (or with respect to the option exercise fee, upon exercise of the option) through mid-2019 – the estimated period over which the Company expects to perform the research and development services. Due to the inherently unpredictable nature of product development activities, the Company periodically reviews the performance period of the research and development services and will adjust the period over which revenue is recognized when appropriate. The Company could accelerate revenue recognition in the event of early termination of programs or if the Company’s expectations change. Alternatively, the Company could decelerate revenue recognition if programs are extended or delayed. While such changes to the Company’s estimates have no impact on the Company’s reported cash flows, the amount of revenue recorded in future periods could be materially impacted. Expense reimbursements for the Company’s Phase 2b emricasan development costs will be recognized as collaboration revenue when the related expenses are incurred.

Under the Investment Agreement, the Company is able to borrow up to $15.0 million at a rate of 6% per annum, under one or two notes, which will mature on December 31, 2019.  The Company may elect at its sole discretion to convert all or part of the outstanding principal and accrued interest into fully paid shares of common stock, at 120% of the 20-day trailing average closing price per share of the common stock immediately prior to the conversion date. Novartis has the option to convert all or part of the note(s) into shares of the Company’s common stock upon a change in control of the Company or termination of the Collaboration Agreement by Novartis pursuant to certain provisions. In the event the conversion of the notes would exceed the lesser of 19.0% of the Company’s outstanding shares on a fully-diluted basis (i) at the inception of the Investment Agreement or (ii) on the conversion date, then only the lesser amount shall convert into shares of common stock and Novartis shall be repaid in cash for any remaining principal and unpaid interest after such conversion. This ability to borrow and repay the debt at a discount using shares of the Company’s common stock was deemed to be additional, foregone revenue attributable to the Collaboration Agreement, which the Company imputed and recorded as both a receivable from Novartis and a liability (deferred revenue) of $2.5 million at the inception of the Collaboration Agreement and the Investment Agreement. On February 15, 2017, the Company issued the Novartis Note in the principal amount of $15.0 million and recorded the $15.0 million proceeds as a convertible note payable in the amount of $12.5 million and a reduction of the outstanding receivable from Novartis of $2.5 million.